Jerome Yeum

Dong Sik (Jerome) Yeum – 11199724



Research Report


Kinetic typography and Young Hae Chang Heavy Industries (장영혜 중공업) – Korean Digital Poet (



◆ Introduction

 Media is extremely broad and it can have many meanings. Successful media needs a good combination of vision and sound. In this research paper the use of typography (with sound) as form of media will be discussed.

 Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic designers, art directors, comic book artists, graffiti artists, and clerical workers. Until the digital age, typography was a specialized occupation. Digitisation opened up typography to new generations of visual designers and lay users. Typography has developed and changed and will continue to do so with the advent of new technology.

 From the beginning of the 20th century, moving typography made its territory beyond the paper sheets and onto the screen. This is called as a kinetic typography and it is used very often in media.

 Kinetic typography is a new way of communication design in the digital media environment – it is expressed as movement in time and space with sound. This paper will analyse an example of kinetic typography in the digital environment.


 The web-art group “Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries” possesses a unique and special type of kinetic typography. They are based in cyberspace and tell many messages. Although these can be read as the simple narrative structures, this type of art can have a social, political or philosophical meaning which can be interpreted depending upon the context in which it is read. This type of art can make the viewer pay attention to the discourse structures apparent in text and music. Different examples of kinetic typography will now be analysed.

◆ Kinetic typography

 Kinetic typography (The technical name for “moving text”) is an animation technique mixing motion and text to express ideas using video animation. This text is presented over time in a manner intended to convey or evoke a particular idea or emotion. It is often studied in communication design and interaction design courses. Some commonly seen examples of this technique include movie title sequences and credits, web page animation and other entertainment media.

Figure 1 (Kinetic Typography)

◆ History of Kinetic Typography

 With the arrival of film and graphic animation, the possibility of matching text and motion emerged. Examples of animated letterforms appeared as early as 1899 in the advertising work of George Melies. Early feature films contained temporal typography, but this was largely static text, presented sequentially and subjected to cinematic transitions. It was not until the 1960s when opening titles began to feature typography that was truly kinetic. Scholars recognize the first feature film to extensively use kinetic typography as Alfred Hitchcock’s North by Northwest (USA, 1959). (Figure 2)

 This film’s opening title sequence—created by Saul Bass—contained animated text, featuring credits that “flew” in from off-screen, and finally faded out into the film itself. A similar technique was also employed by Bass in Psycho (USA, 1960). (Figure 3)

 Since then kinetic typography has been used in countless television advertisements and film titles. This has led to the use of this technique in many platforms for advertising and film introductory. There has also been a new development in this field of typography with the creation of new programs and applications for producing animation and text, this promises more interesting developments in the future.

 Animation is presented in a way intended to evoke or convey a specific emotion or idea. It is usually studied in upper-level interaction design and communication design courses. The common examples include webpage animation, credits, title sequences and many entertainment media. ‘Kinetic’ is different from other categories of temporal typography. Serial presentation involves sequential presentation of static typography compositions. The Barbara Brownie’s technique of typography separates kinetic into fluid typography and motion typography which is then divided into a dynamic layout or scrolling typography. In fluid typography, letters form, evolve and transform without changing location. In a dynamic layout, text moves text follows text preceding it. The best effect is achieved through the compositing of text layers in such a way that both the words and the individual letters can be separately animated from the others.

 Kinetic typography is usually produced by employing standard animation applications, including Apple Motion, Adobe Flash and Adobe Effects.

Figure 2 (NORTH BY NORTHWEST (1959) Title Sequence by Saul Bass)


  • Directed by: Alfred Hitchcock
  • Starring: Cary Grant, Eva Marie Saint, James Mason
  • Country: USA
  • Titles designed by Saul Bass

NORTH BY NORTHWEST’ was the second of three title sequences Saul Bass designed for director Alfred Hitchcock.


Figure 3 (PSYCHO (1960) Title Sequence by Saul Bass)

PSYCHO (1960)

  • Directed by: Alfred Hitchcock
  • Starring: Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh, Vera Miles
  • Country: USA
  • Titles designed by Saul Bass

PSYCHO’ was the third of three title sequences Saul Bass designed for director Alfred Hitchcock.


◆ Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries

 “Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industryies” is a Seoul, Korea-based Web art group consisting of Young-Hae Chang (South Korea) and Marc Voge (U.S.A). “Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries” produces the Web art (Kinetic typography) which is shown through the internet website like Andy Warhol produces the Pop-Art through a studio factory. (Figure 4)

 Their work, presented in 17 languages, is characterised by text-based animation composed in Adobe Flash that is highly synchronized to a musical score that is often original and typically jazz genre of music.

 In 2000, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries’s work was recognised by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art for its contribution to Online Art. In 2001 the group was awarded a grant from the Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists. Their solo show, “Black On White, Gray Ascending”, a seven-channel installation, was part of the inaugural opening of the New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, in 2007.

 According to the artists, their piece Dakota “is based on a close reading of Ezra Pound’s Cantos I and first part of II.” Their pieces are characterized by speed, references to film, concrete poetry, etc. Their work is sometimes called digital literature or net art, but there is no consensus.

Figure 4 (Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries Web Site Main Page)

    ★ The web site of Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries is designed very simply just like their works

◆ Vision of The Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries

 The kinetic typography is combination of a visual text effect and an acoustic sound effect. It has senses of speed, space and timing and the Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries’ work shows those senses on the screen. In their work, texts are appeared and disappeared with sparkling effects and sometimes we cannot even read well because, it is too quick. Their kinetic typography looks “Big and strong” and sometimes “Small and smooth” and it expresses the weight of topic and point using a different brightness, sizes, thicknesses and various directions of moving. Even though, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries uses minimised design of typography, their words have energy, power and also character.

 They insist to use only simple fonts and primary colours like white, black, red and yellow. It means that the elements of Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries are very simple and tough. Moreover, it is totally different kind of aesthetics as before conventional works and it can be an ugly aesthetics or experimental aesthetics.

Figure 5 (Texts of Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries)



◆ Sound of Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries

 The text of Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries performs on the screen with a Jazz and percussion instrumental music. The purposes of text animation such as passion, anger and anxiety become more clear and natural after they are mixed with an agitate music and it is like that silent text has a new voice. The main genre of music what Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries uses are Jazz and Nanta music. Nanta (Korean: 난타) is the title of popular South Korean musical. In English the show is also known as “Cookin'” and nowadays, it has become a genre of music. Nanta is a lively performance in which the performers creatively turn their kitchen items such as pots, cooking pans, knives, chopping boards, brooms into percussions. (Figure 6)

 The feeling of texts changes depends on what music is used for. For example, one of their work “Gates of hell” has two different versions. One is with dreamlike jazz music which expresses a mental anxiety and the other one is with drum beats which arouses a tension.

Figure 6 (Nanta Performance)


Figure 7 (Exhibitions of The Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries)

Solo shows – 8 Times

– 2010
   The Lovers of Beaubourg – Musée D´Art de Joliette, Joliette, Québec

– 2009
   Young Hae Chang: Heavy Industries – Gertrude contemporary art spaces, Melbourne, VIC

– 2008
   Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – CLOSE YOUR EYES – National Museum of Contemporary Art – EMST, Athens

– 2007
   Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – 24HR Art, Darwin, NT
   The 1st at Moderna: Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – Moderna Museet, Stockholm

– 2004
   New Internationally Acclaimed Work by Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – Leeum – Samsung Museum     of Art, Seoul
   Young-Hae Chang – Heavy Industries presents Bust Down the Doors – Rodin Gallery, Seoul

– 2001
  Chang Young Hae – Gallery Hyundai, Seoul

Group shows – 61 Times

– 2010
MOUTH TO MOUTH TO MOUTH: contemporary art from Korea – Museum of Contemporary Art Belgrade / Muzej savremene umetnosti Beograd, Belgrade Random Access – Nam June Paik Art Center, Yongin-si

Philagrafika 2010: The Graphic Unconscious – Temple Gallery – Tyler School of Art, Philadelphia, PA
Edge of Elsewhere – 4A Centre for Contemporary Asian Art, Sydney, NSW

– 2009
Your Bright Future: 12 Contemporary Artists from Korea – MFAH – Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Houston, TX
Your Bright Future: 12 Contemporary Artists from Korea – Los Angeles County
Museum of Art – LACMA, Los Angeles, CA
“Weak Signals, Wild Cards” – De Appel, Amsterdam
Monument to Transformation 1989-2009 – City Gallery Prague / Galerie Hlavního Města Prahy, Prague
A Secret Understanding – Kunsthaus Graz, Graz
Take the Money and Run – De Appel, Amsterdam
The First Stop on the Super Highway – Nam June Paik Art Center, Yongin-si

– 2008
Electioneering – Fort Worth Contemporary Arts, Fort Worth, TX
7+1 Project Rooms – MARCO Museo de Arte Contemporánea de Vigo, Vigo
Biacs 3 – BIACS – Fundación Bienal Internacional de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla, Sevilla
Summer Screen – Spacex, Exeter (England)
Send: Conversations in Evolving Media – Institute of Contemporary Art at Main College of Art, Portland, ME
Send: Conversations in Evolving Media – Institute of Contemporary Art at Maine
College of Art (ICA at MECA), Portland, OR
Teleport Färgfabriken – Färgfabriken Norr, Östersund
Geopolitics of the Animation – MARCO Museo de Arte Contemporánea de Vigo, Vigo

– 2007
Net Working – Net Art From the Computer Fine Arts Collection – Haifa Museum of Art, Haifa
The show “POIESIS – Oi Futuro, Rio de Janeiro
Fwd Transitio_MX. Festival Internacional de Artes Electronicas y Video. – Laboratorio Arte Alameda, Mexico City
Playback – Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris – MAM/ARC, Paris
Tomorrow – Kumho Museum of Art, Seoul
10th International İstanbul Biennial – International Istanbul Biennial, Istanbul
Lost Tongues Rediscovered – Stroom, The Hague
Bling – Galerie Mikael Andersen, Copenhagen
Leuchtband – Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – Kunsthalle wien project space karlsplatz, Vienna
Elastic Taboos – Koreanische Kunst der Gegenwart – Kunsthalle Wien (Museumsquartier), Vienna
System error – War is a force that gives us meaning – SMS Contemporanea, ex Palazzo Delle Papesse, Siena
World Factory – Walter and McBean Galleries at San Francisco Art Institute, San Francisco, CA

– 2006
27° Bienal de São Paulo – Bienal de Sao Paulo, São Paulo
On & Off – Bryce Wolkowitz Gallery, New York City, NY
Concrete Language – CAG – Vancouver Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver, BC
Edge Conditions. Part II – San Jose Museum of Art, San Jose, CA
Mountain village Kouji animation spreading/displaying – Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art,                 Hiroshima
Violencia sin cuerpos – Fundación Luis Seoane, A Coruña
META.morfosis – El museo y el arte en la era digital – Museo Extremeño e
Iberoamericano de Arte Contemporáneo MEIAC, Badajoz
Can We Fall in Love with a Machine? – Wood Street Galleries, Pittsburg, PA

– 2005
The 3rd Fukuoka Art Triennale – Fukuoka Asian Art Triennale, Fukuoka
Projekt Konst/TV – Dunkers Kulturhus, Helsingborg mots d’ordre mots de passe – Fondation d´entreprise                Ricard, Paris
Project III – Contemporary Art Center of South Australia – CACSA, Adelaide, SA
Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – Bust down the doors! en Operation Nukorea – Stedelijk Museum                      Schiedam, Schiedam

– 2004
The 3th Seoul International Biennale of Media Art – Digital Homo Ludens (Game and Play) – Media City Seoul – International Biennale of Media Art, Seoul
GRAVITY – Singapore Art Museum, Singapore
Building the Unthinkable – Apexart, New York City, NY
Depicting Love – Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin
Personne n’est innocent – Le Confort Moderne, Poitiers
“The Big Nothing” – ICA – Institute of Contemporary Art – University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

– 2003
Pressing Flesh – Skin, Touch, Intimacy – Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland
FUTURE CINEMA – The Cinematic Imaginary after Film – NTT InterCommunication Center [ICC], Tokyo
Demirrorized Zone – De Appel, Amsterdam
50th International Art Exhibition Venice Biennale / Biennale di Venezia – La Biennale di Venezia, Venice

– 2002
Future Cinema: The Cinematic Imaginary after film – ZKM | Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie                    Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe
The Music in Me, Chapter 1 – (concerting an exhibition) – GAK – Gesellschaft für Aktuelle Kunst e.V. Bremen,        Bremen
Invisible Power – The Israeli Center for Digital Art, Holon
Asianvibe. Contemporary Asian Art – EACC – Espai d´Art Contemporani de Castelló, Castellon de la Plana

– 2001
Interactive Media Lounge – Experimenta Media Arts, Melbourne, VIC
D>Art.01 – dLux media arts, Sydney, NSW
Sunshine – Insa Art Space, Seoul

Reference / Bibliography



Sang Hee, Park, 2009, Korean National Assembly Library – A critical Study on the Languages and Expressions of Sensibilities of works of Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries, viewed 29 March 2011  <;

Jae Seon, Lim, 2010, Korean National Assembly Library – Formative Elements of Moving Typography in Movie Opening Credits, viewed 30 March 2011 <;, 2011, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries – Biography, viewed 29 March 2011 <;

Christian Annyas – The Movie Title Still Collection, viewed 31 March 31 March 2011 <;

Kinetic Typography Marketing Firm, 2011, History of Kinetic Typography, viewed 31 March 2011 <;

CVHS Design – Kinetic Typography, viewed 2 April 2011


David Chen, 2008, Great Scenes from TV and Film, Told Using Only Typography (and Sound), viewed 2 April 2011 <;

Whitney Hahn, 2011, Behind the Scenes: Putting Words in Motion – “Kinetic Typography” adds punch to your video marketing, viewed 3 April 2011 <;

Hyun Joo, Yoo, 2005, Intercultural medium literature digital Interview with Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries, viewed 5 April 2011 <;

Jeony, Jeon, 2011, Web-art Artist Young Hae Chang, viewed 9 April <;

Silver, Min, 2010, Young Hae Chang, viewed 9 April 11, 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Young Hae Chang Heavy Industries, viewed 29 March 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Typography, viewed 29 March 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Kinetic Typography, viewed 29 March 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Nanta, viewed 08 April 2011 <;




Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries’ Web Home Page <;

Campbelltown City Council Home Page, 2010, Young Hae Chang Heavy Industries Flash Animation Workshop, viewed 5 April 2011 <;

Philagrafika, 2010, Interview- Young Hae Chang Heavy Industries, viewed 8 April 2011 <;

Rick Silva, Interview of Young Hae-Chang, viewed 8 April 2011 <;

Aamyyn, 2008, Young Hae-Chang Heavy Industries, viewed 9 April 2011 <;

Hye Won, Jeon, 2010, Young Hae-Chang Heavy Industries came back, viewed 10 April 2011 <;

Hee Kyoung, Hwang, 2010, Young Hae-Chang Heavy Industries will have an exhibition,viewed 10 April 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Georges Méliès, viewed 03 April 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Alfred Hitchcock, viewed 03 April 2011 <;

Wikipedia, Saul Bass, viewed 03 April 2011 <;


  1. Thanks jerome for the report
    Here have a lot figures and lists satisfy me about typography and Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries. Young-Hae Chang is great modern artist who cooperate with American company mostly, i can see he also try to promote Korean culture to the world. In Young-Hae Chang heavy industries, when we see the modern art-Kinetic typography moving on the screen also can hear traditional south Korean music-Nanta, this is a great combination and idea. I think all the good artist should never forget where they are come from.
    If i did not read this report i will not think about typography, cause since i was born it is really usual to see it. Also this is the reason why i first time open the website of Yong-Hae Chang,i could not understand the purpose of doing it. So this report have reminding me what is art. Art fill of our life should try to study and discover as much as i can. If i do not know i will never do anything or project about it.
    Compare with my report,i think jerome’s work is more like report which contain a lot figures and reference.It helps me next time i can do it better.

    • mimifoxliu says:

      Thanks Jerome~
      i really love Korean entertainment and design in many areas~ but i never think about more of them such as the background and the culture. this report gave me a new sightseeing to see the Korean music and technology~ and i can see u did a lot of research and read a lot~ i need to learn from u~
      the typography is a new concept for me coz i never heard of that, and ur report explained it so clearly, including more related information~ it is quite valuable~
      when i finish read this report, i just think i have to improve mine~~~

  2. Jon Zhuang says:

    Hey Jerome
    If we seek about the lowest budget design genre in fashion or design industry, it’s really about the Typography, but it’s the most efficient and direct way to distribute the fashion or design to the public, it’s about the design text, because it covers a very wide range of things: books, posters, and websites are all textual. Typography goes beyond the letters on screen or paper: It’s also concerned with the space around the text, the way it sits on a page or screen, and the size and proportions of those mediums. However, have you thought about what’s the distribution of typography to the design/fashion industry? I think a good typography essential to making the users’ experience as easy and useful as possible. The ability of good typography to pick out meaning, signpost information, and provide ways for readers to navigate within a document makes it valuable.

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